Home Science Webb Space Telescope Discovers Complex Organic Molecules in Galaxy More Than 12 Billion Light-Years Away

Webb Space Telescope Discovers Complex Organic Molecules in Galaxy More Than 12 Billion Light-Years Away

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Webb Space Telescope Discovers Complex Organic Molecules in Galaxy More Than 12 Billion Light-Years Away

Complex Organic Molecules Galaxy

Astronomers using the Webb telescope discovered evidence of complex organic molecules similar to smoke or smog in the distant galaxy shown here. The galaxy, more than 12 billion light years away, happens to line up almost perfectly with a second galaxy only three billion light years away from our perspective on Earth. In this false-color Webb image, the foreground galaxy is shown in blue, while the background galaxy is in red. The organic molecules are highlighted in orange. Credit: J. Spilker / S. Doyle, NASA, ESA, CSA

The James Webb Space Telescope has facilitated the discovery of complex organic molecules in a distant galaxy, marking the furthest known occurrence of these molecules and providing significant insights into early universe chemistry.

Researchers have detected complex organic molecules in a galaxy more than 12 billion light-years away from Earth – the most distant galaxy in which these molecules are now known to exist. Thanks to the capabilities of the recently launched James Webb Space Telescope and careful analyses from the research team, a new study lends critical insight into the complex chemical interactions that occur in the first galaxies in the early universe.

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign astronomy and physics professor Joaquin Vieira and graduate student Kedar Phadke collaborated with researchers at Texas A&M University and an international team of scientists to differentiate between infrared signals generated by some of the more massive and larger dust grains in the galaxy and those of the newly observed hydrocarbon molecules.

The study findings were published on June 5 in the journal Nature.

“This project started when I was in graduate school studying hard-to-detect, very distant galaxies obscured by dust,” Vieira said. “Dust grains absorb and re-emit about half of the stellar radiation produced in the universe, making infrared light from distant objects extremely faint or undetectable through ground-based telescopes.”

Eintstein Ring Webb Infographic

The galaxy observed by Webb shows an Einstein ring caused by a phenomenon known as lensing, which occurs when two galaxies are almost perfectly aligned from our perspective on Earth. The gravity from the galaxy in the foreground causes the light from the background galaxy to be distorted and magnified, like looking through the stem of a wine glass. Because they are magnified, lensing allows astronomers to study very distant galaxies in more detail than otherwise possible. Credit: S. Doyle / J. Spilker

In the new study, the JWST received a boost from what the researchers call “nature’s magnifying glass” – a phenomenon called gravitational lensing. “This magnification happens when two galaxies are almost perfectly aligned from the Earth’s point of view, and light from the background galaxy is warped and magnified by the foreground galaxy into a ring-like shape, known as an Einstein ring,” Vieira said.

The team focused the JWST on SPT0418-47 – an object discovered using the National Science Foundation’s South Pole Telescope and previously identified as a dust-obscured galaxy magnified by a factor of about 30 to 35 by gravitational lensing. SPT0418-47 is 12 billion light-years from Earth, corresponding to a time when the universe was less than 1.5 billion years old, or about 10% of its current age, the researchers said.

“Before having access to the combined power of gravitational lensing and the JWST, we could neither see nor spatially resolve the actual background galaxy through all of the dust,” Vieira said.

Lily Kettler, Joaquin Vieira and Kedar Phadke

Undergraduate student Lily Kettler, left, professor Joaquin Vieira and graduate student Kedar Phadke are part of an international team that detected complex organic molecules in a galaxy more than 12 billion light-years from Earth – the most distant galaxy in which these molecules are now known to exist. Credit: Fred Zwicky

Spectroscopic data from the JWST suggest that the obscured interstellar gas in SPT0418-47 is enriched in heavy elements, indicating that generations of stars have already lived and died. The specific compound the researchers detected is a type of molecule called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, or PAH. On Earth, these molecules can be found in the exhaust produced by combustion engines or forest fires. Being comprised of carbon chains, these organic molecules are considered the basic building blocks for the earliest forms of life, the researchers said.

“What this research is telling us right now – and we are still learning – is that we can see all of the regions where these smaller dust grains are located – regions that we could never see before the JWST,” Phadke said. “The new spectroscopic data lets us observe the galaxy’s atomic and molecular composition, providing very important insights into the formation of galaxies, their lifecycle and how they evolve.”

“We didn’t expect this,” Vieira said. “Detecting these complex organic molecules at such a vast distance is game-changing regarding future observations. This work is just the first step, and we’re just now learning how to use it and learn its capabilities. We are very excited to see how this plays out.”

“It’s extremely cool that galaxies I discovered while writing my thesis would one day be observed by the JWST,” Vieira said. “I am grateful to the U.S. taxpayers, the NSF and NASA for funding and supporting both the SPT and the JWST. Without these instruments, this discovery could have never been made.”

For more on this discovery, see James Webb Telescope Discovers Organic Molecules in Distant Galaxy.

Reference: “Spatial variations in aromatic hydrocarbon emission in a dust-rich galaxy” by Justin S. Spilker, Kedar A. Phadke, Manuel Aravena, Melanie Archipley, Matthew B. Bayliss, Jack E. Birkin, Matthieu Béthermin, James Burgoyne, Jared Cathey, Scott C. Chapman, Håkon Dahle, Anthony H. Gonzalez, Gayathri Gururajan, Christopher C. Hayward, Yashar D. Hezaveh, Ryley Hill, Taylor A. Hutchison, Keunho J. Kim, Seonwoo Kim, David Law, Ronan Legin, Matthew A. Malkan, Daniel P. Marrone, Eric J. Murphy, Desika Narayanan, Alex Navarre, Grace M. Olivier, Jeffrey A. Rich, Jane R. Rigby, Cassie Reuter, James E. Rhoads, Keren Sharon, J. D. T. Smith, Manuel Solimano, Nikolaus Sulzenauer, Joaquin D. Vieira, David Vizgan, Axel Weiß and Katherine E. Whitaker, 5 June 2023, Nature.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-05998-6

Vieira also is the director of the Center for AstroPhysical Surveys, funded by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at Illinois. Phadke is a CAPS graduate fellow.

The Space Telescope Science Institute operates the JWST under the management of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-03127.

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